Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Overview: Sequence, Structure, Function and Protein Interaction

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Overview

Using a Xenopus expression-cloning screen, Hsu et al. (1998) isolated GREM1, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP; see 112264) signaling that is expressed in the neural crest. Gremlin-1 belongs to a novel gene family that includes the head-inducing factor cerberus (CER1; 603777) and the tumor suppressor DAN (600613). Hsu et al. (1998) showed that all family members are secreted proteins and that they act as BMP antagonists in embryonic explants. They also provided support for the model that gremlin, cerberus, and DAN block BMP signaling by binding BMPs, preventing them from interacting with their receptors. They proposed that gremlin, cerberus, and DAN control diverse processes in growth and development by selectively antagonizing the activities of different subsets of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta ligands. By homology searches, Hsu et al. (1998) cloned the human homolog of Xenopus gremlin. The human gremlin cDNA encodes a predicted 184-amino acid protein.

Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein family

Belongs to the DAN family.

Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein name

Recommended name
Gremlin-1
Short name
IHG-2
Aliases
DAND2, DRM, gremlin, HMPS
Alternative name
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1 DAN domain family member 2 Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein Increased in high glucose protein 2

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Gene family protein

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Sequence

Species Human Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein
Length 184
Mass (Da) 20697
Sequence Human Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein sequence
Species Mouse Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein
Length 184
Mass (Da) 20710
Sequence Mouse Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein sequence
Species Rat Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein
Length 184
Mass (Da) 20680
Sequence Rat Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein sequence

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Molecular Weight & PI

Gremlin-1 precursor (Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein) (Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1) (DAN domain family member 2) (Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein) (Increased in high glucose protein 2) (IHG-2) Homo sapiens (Human).

The parameters have been computed for the following feature

FT CHAIN 25-184 Gremlin-1.

Molecular weight (Da)

18282.86

Theoretical pI

9.55

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Structure

Crystal structure of human Gremlin-1
Deposited
2015-08-31   Released:  2016-04-13
Deposition Author(s)
Kisonaite, M., Hyvonen, M.
Organism(s)
Homo sapiens
Expression System
Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
Experimental Data Snapshot
Method
X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution
1.9040 Å
R-Value Free
0.208
R-Value Work
0.179
5AEJ From PDB

Human Gremlin 1/GREM1 protein Secondary structure

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Interaction

Recombinant Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein Feature

Gremlin 1/GREM1 Protein, Mouse, Recombinant (His Tag)

High Purity
> 88 % as determined by SDS-PAGE
Low Endotoxin
< 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
High Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit recombinant human BMP4-induced alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3-E1 cells. The ED50 for this effect is typically 1-7 μg/mL in the presence of 50 ng/mL of recombinant human BMP4.

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