Antibody Production

Antibody Production Definition

Antibody production is a main function of the immune system and is carried out by B cells. Antibodies act as an important part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as bacteria or viruses, and aiding in their destruction.

What is antibody production? Antibody production is a term with both general and specific meanings. Broadly speaking, it refers to the entire process of generating specific antibodies, including procedures of immunogen preparation, immunization, hybridoma production, screening and purification. In a more specific sense, antibody production only means the step of antibody production.

Owing to the development of antibody production techniques, there are various methods for antibody production. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced through the use of hybridoma cells in vitro. Polyclonal antibodies are typically manufactured in rabbits.

With years of process development, Sino Biological has become a leading antibody production company. We offer custom antibody production in gram scale quantities and ensures you get highly competitive prices with fast turnaround time. From gene sequence to 10 grams of purified antibodies, it only takes just a few weeks to deliver the product to your door.

Antibody Production in Animals

Monoclonal antibody production in mice

In 1975, George Kohler and Cesar Milstein discovered a way to produce monoclonal antibodies, also known as hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibodies have become indispensable tools both on basic biological research and clinical medicine.

The process of mouse mAb development comprises the following steps: 1) the generation of antigen-specific B cells, 2) the fusion of these cells with myeloma cells, 3) the cloning and selection of the specific hybridoma clone by "limiting dilution", and 4) the up-scaling of mAb production.

Sino Biological has an optimized hybridoma technology for commercial production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Whatever your specifications are, Sino Biological can propose tailored solutions and its expertise to successfully complete each project. Learn more about "Monoclonal Antibody Production".

How to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies
Fig 1. How to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies (Diagram from Front. Microbiol.)

Polyclonal antibody production in rabbits

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by injecting a specific antigen into lab animals, such as rabbits and goats, etc. The animal is immunized repeatedly to obtain higher titers of antibodies specific for the antigen. Within a few weeks, these polyclonal antibodies can be harvested and collected from the antiserum.

Production of polyclonal antibodies is easier and more cost-effective than the production of monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, polyclonal antisera can be generated in a shorter time (4-8 weeks), whereas it takes about 3 to 6 months to produce mAbs.

Sino Biological provides polyclonal antibody production services that deliver you antisera or purified antibodies in just 45 days. Just send us an antigen sequence, and we'll get you high-affinity polyclonal antibodies for your research or diagnostic purposes. Learn more about "Polyclonal Antibody Production".

How to make rabbit polyclonal antibodies
Fig 2. How to make rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Diagram from Lumen Learning)

Antibody Production in Bacteria

Among various bacterial hosts, E. coli has been the workhorse for production of antibody fragments, such as Fab and scFv antibody. An E. coli system offers the advantages of speed, with much faster cell growth and the ability to rapidly make new production cell lines when compared to mammalian cell systems. Besides, production processes using E. coli do not present the concern of adventitious agents that exists for mammalian cell systems, thereby alleviating the need for viral removal steps and the validation that is required for those steps.

The lack of glycosylation in E. coli produced antibodies eliminates clinical complications associated with effector functions. Most therapeutic applications do not require these activities, as blocking some type of protein-protein interaction is the primary and only function of many antibodies.

Antibody Production in CHO Cells

In the last few decades, CHO cells (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells) have been widely used for recombinant protein technology and monoclonal antibody production. The CHO expression system is remarkable because it can easily adapt to a variety of culture conditions and also the fact that it can be manipulated by genetic engineering with relative ease.

Sino Biological is capable of transient production of antibodies in mammalian cells, such as CHO and HEK293 cells. We can tailor our custom antibody production to suit your needs, including tag removal, endotoxin control, SEC-HPLC assay, glycosylation analysis, and so on.


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3. Birch, J. R., & Racher, A. J. (2006). Antibody production. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 58(5-6), 671-685.
4. Leenaars, M., & Hendriksen, C. F. (2005). Critical steps in the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies: evaluation and recommendations. Ilar Journal, 46(3), 269-279.
5. Lee, Y. J., & Jeong, K. J. (2015). Challenges to production of antibodies in bacteria and yeast. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, 120(5), 483-490.
6. Reilly, D. E., & Yansura, D. G. (2010). Production of monoclonal antibodies in E. coli. In Current trends in monoclonal antibody development and manufacturing (pp. 295-308). Springer, New York, NY.

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