Abnormal CXCR4 surface expression in solid tumors, has been shown to be responsible for their metastasis to particular organs with high CXCL12 levels (e.g., lymph nodes, bones, and bone marrow (BM)), and have prognostic significance for disease progression in breast, colorectal, and renal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In leukemia, CXCR4 expression conferred leukemic blasts with a higher capacity to seed into BM niches, thereby protecting leukemic cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, and was correlated with shorter disease-free survival. Conversely, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 disrupted metastasis, induced apoptosis, and increased chemosensitivity in solid cancers and leukemia.
Chen J, et al. Dysregulated CXCR4 expression promotes lymphoma cell survival and independently predicts disease progression in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Oncotarget. 2015;6(8):5597-5614.