CCR4 was identified as its specific receptor, which is also the functional receptor for other CC chemokines. The expression of chemokine receptors is known to be associated with cancer metastases, such as CXCR4, CCR7 and CCR10 in breast cancer and CXCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CCR4 in pancreatic, gastric and prostate cancers. Some studies definitively demonstrated that CXCR4 and CXCL12 play an important role in the metastasis of gastric cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity. As an important chemokine receptor, CCR4 is characterized by mediating immune homeostasis and is selectively expressed on regulatory T cells and Th2 cells. The functionof CCR4 has been previously elucidated in both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors such as gastric cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. Moreover, the study by Al-haidari et al. suggested that CCR4 might participate in CCL17-induced migration of colon cancer cells.
Cao L, Hu X, Zhang J, Huang G, Zhang Y. The role of the CCL22-CCR4 axis in the metastasis of gastric cancer cells into omental milky spots. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2014;12:267.
Ou B, Zhao J, Guan S, et al. CCR4 promotes metastasis via ERK/NF-kappaB/MMP13 pathway and acts downstream of TNF-α in colorectal cancer[J]. Oncotarget, 2016, 7(30): 47637-47649.