Protectin, a complement regulatory protein, also known as CD59, or MIRL (membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis) is a small protein that inhibits the complement membrane attack complex by binding C5b678 and preventing C9 from binding and polymerizing. The amino-terminal 25 amino acids represented a typical signal peptide sequence and the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic amino acids were characteristic for phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.It was found that the CD59/Protectin antigen is a small protein sometimes associated with larger components (45 and 8 kD) in urine. CD59/Protectin antigen was released from the surface of transfected COS cells by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, demonstrating that it is attached to the cell membrane by means of a glycolipid anchor; it is therefore likely to be absent from the surface of affected erythrocytes in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Huang Y, et al. (2006) Defining the CD59-C9 binding interaction. J Biol Chem. 281 (37): 27398-404.
Sawada R, et al. (1990) Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes. DNA Cell Biol. 9(3): 213-20.
Philbrick WM, et al. (1990) The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility. Eur J Immunol. 20(1): 87-92.