The p38 family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) includes p38 alpha (SAPK2a, CSBP), p38 beta (SAPK2b), p38 delta (SAPK4), and p38 gamma (SAPK3/ERK6). p38 alpha and p38 beta are widely expressed p38 isoforms that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and stress response. p38 delta, also known as MAPK13, is a regulator of differentiation-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes and has been a regulator of surface epithelial differentiation and apoptosis. p38 delta protein is upregulated in Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) relative to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal biliary tract tissues. p38 delta is important for motility and invasion of CC cells, suggesting that p38 delta may play an important role in CC metastasis. p38 delta is expressed in the epidermis, suggesting a role for p38 delta in regulating differentiation. p38 delta is the major p38 isoform driving suprabasal involucrin gene expression and that p38 delta directly regulates ERK1/2 activity via the formation of a p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex. Recent emerging evidence suggests that the p38 stress MAPK pathway may function as a tumor suppressor through regulating Ras-dependent and -independent proliferation, transformation, invasion, and cell death by isoform-specific mechanisms. p38 delta has an important role in promoting cell proliferation and tumor development in the epidermis and may have therapeutic implications for skin cancer.
mitogen-activated protein kinase 13
VEGF Signaling Pathway
IL1 signaling pathway
IL17 signaling pathway
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