GSK3B is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It Contains 1 protein kinase domain, and is expressed in testis, thymus, prostate and ovary and weakly expressed in lung, brain and kidney. GSK3B is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in GSK3B gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. GSK3B participates in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is implicated in the hormonal control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, MYB and the transcription factor JUN. Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, and decreases the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin. GSK3B also plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It prevents the phosphorylation of APC and CLASP2, allowing its association with the cell membrane. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization. GSK3B phosphorylates MACF1 and this phosphorylation inhibits the binding of MACF1 to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair. It may be required for early embryo development and neuron differentiation.
glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
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