CD antigens are widely used for immunophenotyping. CD antigens are a series of surface proteins on leukocytes that serve to differentiate the many types of white blood cells. CD proteins serve as receptors and ligands such as CD4 and CD8 on T lymphocytes which serve to regulate the adaptive immune response. Some CD proteins regulate cell signaling, while others ensure cell adhesion which is an important aspect of adaptive immunity.
This is very confusing and is one reason why hematopathologists keep lots of aspirin in their desks. Nonetheless, if you study lymphomas, you will have to know at least the basics of this scheme. Here are the basics:
All lymphoid cells are reactive for CD45.
Almost all of B-cells are reactive for CD19, CD20 and CD22. Certain low-grade B-cell lymphomas are reactive for two markers otherwise usually found on T-cells: CD5 and CD43. Follicular center cell lymphomas (as well as very different fish, lymphoblastic lymphomas) are frequently CD10(+).
Pan T-cell markers (present on almost all T-cells) include CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7. Most T-cells mark with either CD4 (helper cells) or CD8 (suppressor cells or cytotoxic cells).
NK cells are frequently associated with CD16, CD56, or CD57.
|CD2||T11, LFA-2, SRBC-R, Erythrocyte receptor, LFA-3R||Adhesion between T-cells and other cell types and T-cell activation.|
|CD3d||T3D, IMD19, CD3-DELTA||T-cell activation signaling and regulation of TCR expression|
|CD34||T3E, TCRE，CD3 epsilon||T-cell activation signaling and regulation of TCR expression|
|CD3G||T3G, IMD17, CD3-GAMMA||T-cell activation signaling and regulation of TCR expression|
|CD18||Integrin β2, ITGB2, MFI7||Adhesion, cell signaling|
|CD19||B4, Leu-12||Regulates B-cell development, activation and differentiation. Signal transduction|
|CD20||B1, Bp35, MS4A1||B-cell activation and proliferation|
|CD22||BL-CAM, Siglec-2, Leu-14||B-cell adhesion and signal transduction|
|CD25||Tac, p55, IL2RA||Receptor for IL2|
|CD30||Ki-1, TNFRSF8||Regulates lymphocyte proliferation and cell death. Activation of NF-κB|
|CD32b||FcγRII, FCGR2B,Fc gamma RIIB||Phagocytosis of immune complexes and regulation of antibody production|
|CD33||p67, Siglec-3||Cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, inhibitory receptor, and apoptosis|
|CD40||TNFRSF5||Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and signal transduction|
|CD52||CAMPATH-1, HE5, CDW52||Complement-mediated cell lysis and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity|
|CD58||LFA-3||APC-T-cell adhesion. Killer target cell interaction.|
|CD66e||CEA, CEACAM5||Homophilic and heterophilic adhesion. May play a role in the metastasis of cancer cells|
|CD80||B7, B7-1, BB1||Costimulation of T-cell activation and proliferation.|
|CD86||B70, B7-2, CD28LG2||Costimulation of T-cell activation and proliferation.|
|CD106||VCAM-1, L1CAM||Leukocyte adhesion. Transmigration and costimulation of T-cells.|
|CD120b||TNFR-II, TNFRSF1B, TNFR2||Receptor for TNF. Involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and necrosis|
|CD126||IL-6R, IL6R, gp80||Receptor for IL6|
|CD134||OX-40, TNFRSF4||T-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and cell adhesion|
|CD137||TNFRSF9, 4-1BB, CDw137, ILA||Costimulation of T-cell activation. Regulates T-cell-dependent immune responses.|
|CD154||CD40L, CD40 Ligand, gp39, TRAP||Mediates B-cell proliferation, IgE production and is involved in immunoglobulin class switching|
|CD221||IGF-1 R， IGF1R||Receptor for IGF-I and IGF-II. Mediates mitogenic and anti-apoptotic signals|
|CD227||MUC1, EMA, PUM， Mucin 1||Cell adhesion and signaling|
|CD254||TNFSF11, RANKL, OPGL, ODF||Involved in dendritic cell maturation|
|CD257||BLyS, BAFF, TALL-1, TNFSF13B||Involved in the stimulation of B- and T-cell function and the regulation of humoral immunity|
|CD261||TRAIL-R1, DR4, TNFRSF10A||Induces apoptosis, promotes activation of NFkB|
|CD262||TRAIL-R2, DR5, TNFRSF10B||Activated by TNFSF10 / TRAIL and transduces apoptosis signal|
|CD279||PD1, SLEB2||Inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in T-cell tolerance|
|CD309||VEGFR2, KDR, FLK-1||Activation of this receptor by VEGF plays a role in angiogenesis, development, wound healing, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation|
|CD326||Ep-CAM, Ly74, EGP314, TROP-1, TACSTD1||A homotypic calcium-independent T-cell adhesion molecule|
|CD340||ERBB2, MLN 19||Binds tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signaling pathways|