Special drugs have been designed that identify and attack cells that have a particular type of CD antigens. These drugs are called monoclonal antibodies and they can attack only the type of cell that contains the specific target CD antigens. Monoclonal antibodies can also be tagged to drugs or radiation-emitting substances that add to the ability to kill cells that have the specific CD marker on their surface.
Examples of CD antigens targeted in lymphoma treatment:
Rituxan (Rituximab) - a monoclonal antibody against CD20.
Zevalin (Ibritumomab Tiuxetan) - another antibody against CD20, tagged with a radiation emitting substance (Y90).
Bexxar (Tositumomab) - similar to Zevalin, only the radiation emitting substance is different (I131)
Gazyva (Obinutuzumab): targets CD20 antigen, used in initial treatment for small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Arzerra (Ofatumumab): targets CD 20 antigen, used in SLL/CLL.
Campath (Alemtuzumab): targets CD52 antigen in SLL/CLL and peripheral T-cell lymphomas.
Adcetris (Brentuximab vedotin): targets CD30 and is attached to a chemotherapy drug. Used in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
|CD2||T11, LFA-2, SRBC-R, Erythrocyte receptor, LFA-3R||Adhesion between T-cells and other cell types and T-cell activation.|
|CD4||T4||T-cell activation, thymic differentiation and receptor for HIV|
|CD11a||LFA-1, LFA1A, ITGAL||Intracellular adhesion and costimulation.|
|CD20||B1, Bp35, MS4A1||B-cell activation and proliferation|
|CD27||T14, TNFRSF 7, CD27L receptor||Costimulation of B- and T-cell activation|
|CD30||Ki-1, TNFRSF8||Regulates lymphocyte proliferation and cell death. Activation of NF-κB|
|CD40||TNFRSF5||Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and signal transduction|
|CD47||IAP, MER6||Cell adhesion and signal transduction|
|CD52||CAMPATH-1, HE5, CDW52||Complement-mediated cell lysis and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity|
|CD54||ICAM-1||Cell adhesion, lymphocyte activation, and migration|
|CD58||LFA-3||APC-T-cell adhesion. Killer target cell interaction.|
|CD62L||L-selectin, LECAM-1, SELL||Leukocyte rolling and homing on activated endothelium|
|CD70||Ki-24, CD27L, TNFSF7||Induces proliferation of costimulated T-cells. Enhances the generation of cytotoxic T-cells and contributes to T-cell activation.|
|CD79a||MB1, IGA, Ig-alpha||Subunit of B-cell antigen receptor.Signal transduction|
|CD80||B7, B7-1, BB1||Costimulation of T-cell activation and proliferation.|
|CD86||B70, B7-2, CD28LG2||Costimulation of T-cell activation and proliferation.|
|CD115||M-CSFR, c-fms, CSF1R||Monocytic cell proliferation and differentiation|
|CD120b||TNFR-II, TNFRSF1B, TNFR2||Receptor for TNF. Involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and necrosis|
|CD127||IL-7R, IL7R||Receptor for IL7|
|CD134||OX-40, TNFRSF4||T-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and cell adhesion|
|CD137||TNFRSF9, 4-1BB, CDw137, ILA||Costimulation of T-cell activation. Regulates T-cell-dependent immune responses.|
|CD137L||4-1BB, TNFRSF9, ILA||Costimulation of T-cell activation|
|CD153||CD30L, TNFSF8||Binds to CD30 and induces proliferation of T-cells|
|CD154||CD40L, CD40 Ligand, gp39, TRAP||Mediates B-cell proliferation, IgE production and is involved in immunoglobulin class switching|
|CD178||FasL, CD95L, FASLG, Fas Ligand||T-cell mediated cytotoxicity|
|CD223||LAG-3||Involved in lymphocyte activation, negative regulation of T-cell activation|
|CD252||OX40L, gp34||Ligand for receptor TNFRSF4. Co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and cytokine production|
|CD253||TRAIL, Apo-2L, TL2, TNFSF10||Induces cell death by apoptosis|
|CD257||BLyS, BAFF, TALL-1, TNFSF13B||Involved in the stimulation of B- and T-cell function and the regulation of humoral immunity|
|CD258||LIGHT, HVEM-L, TNFRSF14||Stimulates T-cell proliferation, receptor for Herpes simplex virus|
|CD261||TRAIL-R1, DR4, TNFRSF10A||Induces apoptosis, promotes activation of NFkB|
|CD262||TRAIL-R2, DR5, TNFRSF10B||Activated by TNFSF10 / TRAIL and transduces apoptosis signal|
|CD264||DCR2, TRAIL-R4, TNFRSF10D||Receptor for TRAIL, inhibits apoptosis|
|CD266||TWEAK-R, FGF-inducible 14, TNFRSF12A||Receptor for TWEAK. Promotes angiogenesis and the proliferation of endothelial cells.|
|CD267||TACI, TNFR SF13B, TNFRSF13B||Receptor for CD256 and CD257, mediates activation of the transcription factors NFAT, AP1, and NFkB.|
|CD268||BAFFR, TR13C,TNFRSF13C||B-cell receptor for CD257. B-cell response|
|CD269||BCMA, TNFRSF13B, TNFRSF17||Receptor for CD256 and CD257, activates NFkB and JNK.|
|CD270||HveA, TR2, TNFRSF14||Receptor for CD258 and CD272.|
|CD272||BTLA||Lymphocyte inhibitory receptor|
|CD273||B7DC, PD-L2, PDCD1L2||Stimulatory on dendritic cells, inhibits T-cell activation upon engaging the PD1 receptor.|
|CD274||B7-H1, PD-L1||Found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition|
|CD275||B7-H2, ICOSL, B7-RP1, GL50||Ligand for CD278. Costimulatory signal for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, induces B-cell proliferation and differentiation|
|CD276||B7-H3||Enhances the induction of cytotoxic T-cells and selectively stimulates interferon gamma production in the presence of T-cell receptor signaling|
|CD278||ICOS, AILIM||Mediate cell-cell interactions, and effective help for antibody secretion by B-cells|
|CD279||PD1, SLEB2||Inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in T-cell tolerance|
|CD309||VEGFR2, KDR, FLK-1||Activation of this receptor by VEGF plays a role in angiogenesis, development, wound healing, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation|
|CD314||NKG2D, KLRK1||Receptor for the recognition of MHC class I HLA-E molecules by NK cells and some cytotoxic T-cells|
|CD339||Jagged-1, JAG1, JAGL1, hJ1||Ligand for multiple Notch receptors. Involved in the mediation of Notch signaling, cell fate determination in hematopoiesis and cardiovascular development|
|CD357||TNFRSF18, GITR||Receptor for TNFSF18|