Reticulon-4, also known as Foocen, Neurite outgrowth inhibitor, Nogo protein, Neuroendocrine-specific protein, Neuroendocrine-specific protein C homolog, RTN-x, Reticulon-5 and RTN4, is a multi-pass membrane protein that contains one reticulon domain. Isoform 1 of RTN4 is specifically expressed in brain and testis and weakly in heart and skeletal muscle. Isoform 2 of RTN4 is widely expressed except for the liver. Isoform 3 of RTN4 is expressed in brain, skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Isoform 4 of RTN4 is testis-specific. Reticulon-4 / RTN4 is a developmental neurite growth regulatory factor with a role as a negative regulator of axon-axon adhesion and growth, and as a facilitator of neurite branching. Reticulon-4 / RTN4 regulates neurite fasciculation, branching and extension in the developing nervous system. Reticulon-4 / RTN4 is involved in down-regulation of growth, stabilization of wiring and restriction of plasticity in the adult CNS. It regulates the radial migration of cortical neurons via an RTN4R-LINGO1 containing receptor complex. Isoform 2 of RTN4 reduces the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. This is likely consecutive to their change in subcellular location, from the mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum, after binding and sequestration. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 of RTN4 inhibit BACE1 activity and amyloid precursor protein processing.