Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by intellectual disability, craniofacial abnormalities, short stature, tapering fingers, hypotonia, and skeletal malformations. CLS is caused by mutations in the Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90 kDa, Polypeptide 3 (RPS6KA3) gene located at Xp22.12, which encodes Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2). This gene encodes for a growth factor-regulated serine/threonine-protein kinase, RSK2 (ribosomal S6 kinase 2), acting in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene are extremely heterogeneous and lead to premature termination of translation and/or to loss of phosphotransferase activity of the RSK2 protein. Screening for RSK2 mutations is essential in most cases to confirm the diagnosis as well as for genetic counseling. This gene also affects nonsyndromic X-linked ID and nonsyndromic X-linked ID without bony abnormalities.