Prolactin-induced protein (PIP) is a small secreted glycoprotein carrying several N-linked carbohydrate chains. The expression of PIP is generally restricted to cells with apocrine properties. It was found in the apocrine glands of the axilla, vulva, eyelid, ear canal, and seminal vesicle. Being a secretory protein, PIP is present in seminal plasma, saliva, lacrimal fluid, tears, sweat gland secretion. The available data suggest that PIP can have immunomodulatory functions and plays an important role in cell-mediated adoptive immunity. PIP binds to bacteria from several genera, which suggests that this glycoprotein may participate also in innate immunity and protection of hosts against microbial infections. Increased levels of PIP were found in several types of human cancer (prostate, sweat, and salivary gland cancers). It is especially common in breast cancer, however, data on the expression of PIP in normal and cancerous breast cancer tissues are to some degree conflicting.