Protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) (PIAS1) was identified as a cellular protein binding to N. PIAS1 is known to bind to p65 (RelA) in the nucleus and blocks its DNA binding, thus functions as a repressor of NF-κB. Binding of N to PIAS1 released p65 for NF-κB activation. The N-terminal half of PIAS1 was mapped as the N-binding domain, and this region overlapped its p65-binding domain. For N, the region between 37 and 72 aa was identified as the binding domain to PIAS1, and this domain alone was able to activate NF-κB. PIAS1 is one of the few known SUMO E3 ligases. PIAS1 has been implicated in several biological processes including repression of innate immunity and DNA repair. PIAS1 is a key regulator of STAT1 signaling and may be implicated in carcinogenesis.