DLIM5, a member of the Enigma subfamily of PDZ and LIM domain protein family, contains an N-terminal PDZ domain and three LIM domains at its C-terminus. PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein and has been shown to bind to a variety of proteins through its specific domain, thereby acting to regulate cell migration and tumor progression. Overexpression of PDLIM5 prevents hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH), and deletion of PDLIM5 in smooth muscle cells enhances hypoxia-induced PH in vivo. The PDLIM5 (PDZ and LIM domain 5) gene has been genetically associated with mood disorders; its expression is upregulated in the postmortem brains of patients with bipolar disorder and downregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with major depression. Acute and chronic methamphetamine (METH) administration may model mania and the evolution of mania into psychotic mania or schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, respectively.