Metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1) is a conserved metal-binding transcription factor in eukaryotes that binds to conserved DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements. MTF1 responds to both metal excess and deprivation, protects cells from oxidative and hypoxic stresses, and is required for embryonic development in vertebrates. Metal response element (MRE) binding transcription factor-1 (MTF1) is a six Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing transcription factor required for basal and zinc-induced transcription of metallothionein genes. Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. Mtf1 has been characterized as a mitochondrial transcription factor and is shown to regulate mitochondrial transcription. Mtf1 has an additional function as a transcription factor for the nuclear gene srk1 in fission yeast.