MSX1 (Msh Homeobox 1) is a Protein Coding gene. This gene encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor during embryogenesis through interactions with components of the core transcription complex and other homeoproteins. MSX1 is one of the homeoproteins with the homeodomain (HD) sequence, which regulates proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. MSX1 encodes a transcription factor implicated in the embryonic development of limbs and craniofacial tissues including bone and teeth. The Msx1 transcription factor is involved in multiple epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during vertebrate embryogenesis. It has pleiotropic effects in several tissues. MSX1 has been proposed as a gene in which mutations may contribute to non-syndromic forms of cleft lip and/or cleft palate.