Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3; also known as MAP3K11) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase widely expressed in normal and cancerous tissues, including brain, lung, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues. Its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain has been implicated in MLK3 autoinhibition and interactions with other proteins, including those from viruses. The MLK3 SH3 domain contains a six-amino-acid insert corresponding to the n-Src insert, suggesting that MLK3 may bind additional peptides. MAP3K11 was initially identified in a megakaryocytic cell line and is an emerging therapeutic target in cancer. MAP3K11 directly phosphorylates JNKs and may control activation of ERKs. MAP3K11 is a tightly regulated MAP3K member. Consistent with its known role in the activation of the AP-1 pathway through JNK kinase, MLK3 was able to enhance Tat-dependent HIV transcription in vitro thus leading to an increase in infection signal.