Human LSm14A has recently been found as a processing body-associated sensor of intracellular viral nucleic acids and triggers signaling for type I IFN expression. Human LSm14A is a key component of the processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. LSm14A, a member of the LSM family involved in RNA processing in the processing bodies, binds to synthetic or viral RNA and DNA and mediates IRF3 activation and IFN-β induction. LSm14A is a key innate immunity component of the processing body (P-body) that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) signaling by viral RNA. Knockdown of LSm14A inhibits cytosolic RNA- and DNA-trigger type I IFN production and cellular antiviral response. Moreover, LSm14A is essential for early-phase induction of IFN-β after either RNA or DNA virus infection. chicken LSm14A (cLSm14A) is an important sensor that mediates innate immunity in the chicken against NDV infections.