Izumo is a sperm membrane protein that plays a key role in the fusion in the mouse. It has an Immunoglobulin (Ig) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. Up to now, there four members has an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We call this domain the Izumo domain. The four proteins are Izumo 1, 2, 3, and 4. Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain, or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of a higher order. Izumo 1-3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and other tissues. Izumo 1, 3, and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes, and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Izumo1 is essential for sperm-egg plasma membrane binding and fusion.