G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5, also known as G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK5 and GRK5, is a member of the protein kinase superfamily, AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and GPRK subfamily. GRKs specifically phosphorylate agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors at the inner surface of the plasma membrane (PM), leading to receptor desensitization. GRKs utilize a variety of mechanisms to bind tightly, and sometimes reversibly, to cellular membranes. GRKs play an important role in mediating agonist-specific desensitization of numerous G protein-coupled receptors.
GRK5 contains one AGC-kinase C-terminal domain, one protein kinase domain, and one RGS domain. GRK5 specifically phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors. Phospholipid-stimulated autophosphorylation may represent a novel mechanism for membrane association and regulation of GRK5 activity. GRK5 deficiency significantly exaggerates microgliosis and astrogliosis in the presence of an inflammatory initiator, such as the excess fibrillar Abeta and the subsequent active inflammatory reactions. GRK5 deficiency has been linked to early Alzheimer's disease in humans and mouse models of the disease.