GCAP 1 gene plays a role in the recovery of retinal photoreceptors from photobleaching. In the recovery phase, the phototransduction messenger cGMP is replenished by retinal guanylyl cyclase-1 (GC1). GC1 is activated by decreasing Ca(2+) concentrations following photobleaching. The protein encoded by this gene, guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP 1), mediates the sensitivity of GC1 to Ca(2+) concentrations. GCAP 1 promotes the activity of GC1 at low Ca(2+) concentrations and inhibits GC1 activity at high Ca(2+) concentrations. Mutations in GCAP 1 gene cause autosomal dominant cone dystrophy (COD3); a disease characterized by reduced visual acuity associated with progressive loss of color vision. GCAP 1 stimulates guanylyl cyclase 1 (GC1) when free calcium ions concentration is low and inhibits GC1 when free calcium ions concentration is elevated. This Ca(2+)-sensitive regulation of GC is a key event in the recovery of the dark state of rod photoreceptors following light exposure.