Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotrope-derived heterodimeric glycoprotein. FSH plays an essential role in processes involved in human reproduction, including spermatogenesis and the ovarian cycle. FSHB represents a conservative vertebrate gene with a unique function and it is located in a structurally stable gene-poor region. Polymorphisms in the follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHB) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes might disturb normal spermatogenesis and affect male reproductive ability. The FSHB -211G>T genotype is a key determinant in the regulation of gonadotropins in different reproductive-endocrine pathopyhsiologies.