Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a common muscle disease. Over-expression of FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1) in mice, frogs, and worms perturbs muscle development and causes FSHD-like phenotypes. FRG1 is also important for the normal muscular and vascular development. FRG1 is involved in the morphogenesis of the tooth germ, as well as in the formation of enamel and dentin matrices and that FRG1 may play a role in the odontogenesis in the mouse following BMP4 stimulation. In mammalian cells, FRG1 is a dynamic nuclear and cytoplasmic protein, however in muscle, FRG1 is also a developmentally regulated sarcomeric protein suggesting FRG1 may perform a muscle-specific function. Thus, FRG1 is the only FSHD candidate protein linked to the muscle contractile machinery and may address why the musculature and vasculature are specifically susceptible in FSHD. The FRG1 protein is highly conserved and contains a lipocalin sequence motif, suggesting it may function as a transport protein.