Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is produced by bone cells and regulates renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, as well as causing left ventricular hypertrophy. FGF23 deficiency results in rapid aging, whereas high plasma FGF23 levels are found in several disorders, including kidney or cardiovascular diseases. Regulators of FGF23 production include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, dietary phosphate, and inflammation. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone whose physiologic actions on target tissues are mediated by FGF receptors (FGFR) and klotho, which functions as a co-receptor that increases the binding affinity of FGF23 for FGFRs. By stimulating FGFR/klotho complexes in the kidney and parathyroid gland, FGF23 reduces renal phosphate uptake and secretion of parathyroid hormone, respectively, thereby acting as a key regulator of phosphate metabolism. Fetuin-A, an anti-inflammatory protein synthesized by the liver, is produced also in bone by an FGF23-regulated pathway. FGF23 has been also demonstrated to induce inflammatory cytokine production in the liver. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) are suggested to be biomarkers for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI). Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC), secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene mutation, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent calcified masses.