Pancreatic derived factor, also known as FAM3B, is an islet-specific secreted cytokine specifically expressed at high levels in the islets of Langerhans of the endocrine pancreas. FAM3B protein is present in alpha- and beta- cells of pancreatic islets, insulin-secreting beta-TC3 cells, and glucagon-secreting alpha-TC cells. FAM3B causes apoptosis of beta-cells as assessed by electron microscopy, annexin Ⅴ fluorescent staining, and flow-cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. FAM3B activated caspase-3 while not affect cytosolic Ca2+ levels or nitric oxide levels. Hense, FAM3B may have a role in the process of pancreatic?-cell apoptosis of primary islet and cell lines. FAM3B secretion is regulated by glucose and other insulin secretagogues. This islet-specific secreted cytokine is secreted from both pancreatic alpha- and beta- cells. Glucose stimulates FAM3B secretion dose dependently in beta- cell lines and primary islets but not in alpha-cells. It is likely cosecreted with insulin via the same regulatory mechanisms and structure and conformation is vital for FAM3B secretion.