CTRL-1, also known as chymotrypsin-like protease, belongs to thepeptidase S1 family. CTRL-1 contains 1peptidase S1 domain. Its expression is increased in preeclampsia (PE). Placental-derived chymotrypsin-like protease is responsible for inducing endothelial inflammatory phenotypic changes possibly by upregulation of cell adhesion molecule expressions, activation of cellular protease, and induction of extracellular regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activated microglia have been observed in various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Five structurally distinct inhibitors that are known to inhibit chymotrypsin-like proteases were partially protective. They might represent a novel class of drugs with benefit in diseases where overactivity of microglia contributes to the pathogenesis.