The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. The secreted goblet cell protein CLCA1 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated-1) is, in addition to its established role in epithelial chloride conductance regulation, thought to act as a multifunctional signaling protein, including cellular differentiation pathways and induction of mucus production. Specifically, CLCA1 has recently been shown to modulate early immune responses by regulation of cytokines. Chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) belongs to the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance protein family, which is mainly expressed in the colon, small intestine and appendix.