Inflammatory processes contribute to neurological disorders, and many therapeutic breakthroughs in neurological disease have been immune-targeted.Neuroinflammation refers to the inflammation of the nervous tissue, and is an immune response often initiated against a variety of harmful stimuli such as pathogens or trauma. Neuroinflammation is a complex biological response involving many signaling proteins, receptors, and cell types. Neuroinflammation stems from a combination of responses from resident glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which include microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and non-glial resident myeloid cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) and peripheral leukocytes.