Morphogens, Embryonic Patterning and Axis Formation

Growth factors and morphogens regulate embryonic patterning, cell fate specification, cell migration, and morphogenesis. The activity and behavior of these signaling molecules are regulated in the extracellular space through interactions with proteoglycans.The formation of morphogen concentration gradients directs the biological responses of surrounding cells. Graded responses occur as a result of morphogens binding to specific cell surface receptors that subsequently activate intracellular signaling pathways and promote or repress gene expression at specific threshold concentrations. Activation or inactivation of these signaling pathways provides positional information that ultimately determines cell fate decisions, tissue organization, and morphology. Research in model organisms has revealed that morphogenetic fields are involved in many aspects of development. Research in higher organisms has demonstrated that homologues of these same signaling molecules regulate vertebrate axis formation, anterior/posterior polarity during limb development, mesoderm patterning, and numerous other processes that establish an organism's basic body structure.

Sino Biological lists the classification tree of Morphogens, Embryonic Patterning and Axis Formation, click to see all the related molecules/targets and research reagents of them.

Morphogens, Embryonic Patterning and Axis Formation

Morphogens, Embryonic Patterning and Axis Formation

Hedgehog Family

Hedgehog Family

TGF-beta Superfamily

TGF-beta Superfamily

Activin Family

Activin Family

Activin Modulator

Activin Modulator

Activin Receptor

Activin Receptor

BMP Family

BMP Family

BMP Receptor

BMP Receptor

BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)

BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)

GDNF Family

GDNF Family

GDNF Family Ligands

GDNF Family Ligands

GDNF Family Receptors

GDNF Family Receptors

Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF)

Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF)

TGF-beta Family

TGF-beta Family

TGF-beta Family Ligands

TGF-beta Family Ligands

TGF-beta Family Modulator

TGF-beta Family Modulator

TGF-beta Family Receptor

TGF-beta Family Receptor