In the pathway, NF-κB/Rel proteins are bound and inhibited by IκB proteins. Growth factors, proinflammatory cytokines, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and antigen receptors activate an IKK complex, which phosphorylates IκB proteins. Phosphorylation of IκB leads to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, freeing NF-κB/Rel complexes. The transcription factor NF-κB is thereby released and promotes the expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and antiapoptotic proteins. The NF-κB signal transduction pathway in development and dysfunction of the immune system. In NF-κB pathway, most proteins regulate the expression of genes influencing a broad range of biological processes including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, stress responses, B-cell development, and lymphoid organogenesis.
Nuclear factor kappa B is a dimer belonging to Rel family, that contains a highly conserved Rel-homology domain (RHD). The NFκB proteins have five different monomers that share a Rel homology domain in their N-terminus. The p105 and p100 which precursors of NFκB1 and NFκB2 that are transformed to mature NFκB subunits (p50 and p52) by the ubiquitin pathway. The nuclear translocation of NFκB, inhibitory kappa B (IκB) proteins, and DNA binding interaction with RHD.
NFκB signalling pathway have two major ways,that as : (1) the canonical (mediated by IκB degradation), and (2) the non-canonical (p100 mediated) pathways. In the cell ,the NFκB dimers are attached to IκB proteins under normal conditions. The canonical pathway will be activated by the inflammatory reaction, for example,interleukins, TNF-α, or LPS, that leads to the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Then NFκB becomes free, which follows it moves to the nucleus and initiates transcription of the target genes.