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Immune Checkpoint

Immune Checkpoint Targets (Proteins, Antibodies, Genes, ELISA Kits)

PD1 PD-L1 PD-L2 4-1BB 4-1BBL HVEM BTLA CD160 CD226 LAG3
CTLA-4 B7-1 B7-2 CD40 CD40L Galectin-9 TIM-3 GITR GITRL SIRP alpha
B7-H3 B7-H4 VISTA OX40 OX-40L CEACAM1 CD47 ICOS ICOSL TIGIT
IDO CD28 LIGHT TIGIT CD155 CD70 Adenosine A2a receptor      

Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Blocking Antibodies

Immune Checkpoint Proteins

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Immune Checkpoint Pathways

Immune Checkpoint Background

Immune checkpoint  therapies have attracted amounts of attention from scientists who are devoted to cancer treatment. What is immune checkpoint? It is a kind of co-stimulatory and inhibitory signal for regulating the antigen recognition of T cell receptor (TCR) in the process of immune responce. When immune system is attacking pathogens, these immune checkpoint molecules can protect the normal tissues from damage. The cancer cells cleverly escape from immune attack by dysregulating immune checkpoint related proteins. Immune checkpoint therapy relys on functioning immune system with agonists of co-stimulatory signals or antagonists of inhibitory signals. Over these years there are two immune checkpoint receptors that have been actively studied: cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 / CD152) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279). The corresponding antibodies can inhibit the functioning of the receptors and enhance antitumour immunity. Furthermore, multiple additional immune checkpoints, representing promising targets for anti-cancer therapy are under active development, more therapies based on immune checkpoint for more cancers are on the way to the market.

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of immune checkpoint interaction

Immune checkpoint related reference

1, Pardoll DM. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2012; 12:252–64.
2, Christopher J. Nirschl and Charles G. Drake. y. Molecular Pathways: Coexpression of Immune Checkpoint Molecules: Signaling Pathways and Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 19(18); 4917–24.
3, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer & Alexander Eggermont. Novel immune checkpoint blocker approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. OncoImmunology; 3:11; e967147.

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