Carbonic anhydrases IX (CA IX), also known as membrane antigen MN or CA9, is a member of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family and may be involved in cell proliferation and cellular transformation. CAs are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (H2O + CO2 = H+ + HCO3–) and thus participate in a variety of biological and physical processes. CA IX protein is expressed primarily in carcinoma cells lines, and the expression is cell density dependent and has been shown to be strongly induced by hypoxia, accordingly facilitates adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxic conditions. It is involved in tumorigenesis through many pathways, such as pH regulation and cell adhesion control. CA IX is used as a marker of tumor hypoxia and as a new therapeutic target for many human carcinomas and cancers.
Immune Checkpoint Immunotherapy Cancer Immunotherapy Targeted Therapy