CCL4 Protein

CCL4 Protein Overview

CCL4 reagents

By differential hybridization screening of an activated T-cell library, Lipes et al. (1988) identified an immune activation gene, denoted ACT2. The gene was induced rapidly after T-cell activation with phytohemagglutinin, B-cell activation with Staphylococcus aureus, and monocyte activation with lipopolysaccharide. Lipes et al. (1988) isolated a cDNA containing the full-length coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence predicted an open reading frame of 92 amino acids, including a very hydrophobic N terminus, which was predicted to be a signal peptide. Using a baculovirus expression system, they showed that the gene encodes a secreted product. Therefore, it seemed likely that ACT2 was a cytokine. Irving et al. (1990) identified human homologs of MIP-1-alpha (182283) and MIP-1-beta, designating them 464.1 and 744.1, respectively. They stated that the 2 genes demonstrate parallel regulation following activation of T cells with various mitogens and encode proteins that share 55% sequence similarity. The 464.1 and 744.1 genes are separated by 14 kb in the genome, and are arranged in a head-to-head fashion. Each of the genes is present as an additional copy, which they referred to as 464.2 (SCYA3L1; 601395) and 744.2 (CCL4L; 603782), respectively. MIP1B is an 8-kD acidic protein that is upregulated upon stimulation in monocytes, T cells, and other lymphocytes. It belongs to the CC chemokine subfamily and directs the migration of specific subsets of leukocytes. Modi et al. (2001) noted that there had been confusion regarding the exact number of genes encoding MIP1B and related proteins ever since the first MIP1B molecular clone was isolated. They demonstrated that MIP1B is encoded by 2 paralogous genes, ACT2 (CCL4) and LAG1 (CCL4L), that are closely situated on the long arm of chromosome 17. The proteins share a common length and are identical at 89 of 92 amino acids. The first 2 amino acid differences occur in the signal peptide, while the third is in the mature protein. Within the transcribed region, the genes differ at 25 of 662 nucleotides. Using RT-PCR analysis, Lu et al. (2004) showed that ACT2 and LAG1 are distinct genes and that monocytes predominantly express ACT2, whereas peripheral B lymphocytes express a mixture of ACT2 and LAG1. Lu et al. (2004) also identified B-cell lines that express predominantly LAG1. They concluded that monocytes and B cells use different mechanisms to regulate expression of the 2 genes. Lu et al. (2004) suggested that the most effective anti-HIV drugs would be those that increase expression of whichever CCL4 protein, i.e., ACT2 or LAG1, has the highest affinity for CCR5 (601373). Colobran et al. (2005) showed that both CCL4 and CCL4L generate splice variants lacking exon 2.

CCL4 protein family

Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family.

CCL4 protein name

Recommended name
C-C motif chemokine 4
Act-2, AT744.1, MIP-1-beta
Alternative name
G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein HC21 Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein LAG-1 MIP-1-beta(1-69) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta MIP-1-beta PAT 744 Protein H400 SIS-gamma Small-inducible cytokine A4 T-cell activation protein 2 ACT-2 MIP-1-beta(3-69)

CCL4 Gene family protein

CCL4 Protein Sequence

Species Human CCL4 protein
Length 92
Mass (Da) 10212
Sequence Human CCL4 protein sequence
Species Mouse CCL4 protein
Length 92
Mass (Da) 10168
Sequence Mouse CCL4 protein sequence
Species Rat CCL4 protein
Length 92
Mass (Da) 10234
Sequence Rat CCL4 protein sequence

CCL4 Protein Molecular Weight & PI

C-C motif chemokine 4 precursor (G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein) (HC21) (Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein) (LAG-1) (MIP-1-beta(1-69)) (Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta) (MIP-1-beta) (PAT 744) (Protein H400) (SIS-gamma) (Small-inducible cytokine A4) (T-cell activation protein 2) (ACT-2) [Contains: MIP-1-beta(3-69)] Homo sapiens (Human).

The parameters have been computed for the following feature

FT CHAIN 24-92 C-C motif chemokine 4.

Molecular weight (Da)


Theoretical pI


CCL4 Protein Structure

X-ray Structure of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta
2010-02-17   Released:  2010-11-03
Deposition Author(s)
Guo, Q., Ren, M., Tang, W.
Homo sapiens
Experimental Data Snapshot
2.6020 Å
R-Value Free
R-Value Work
2X6L From PDB

Human CCL4 protein Secondary structure

CCL4 Protein Interaction

Recombinant CCL4 Protein Feature

CCL4 Protein, Human, Recombinant (His Tag)

High Purity
> 90 % as determined by SDS-PAGE
Low Endotoxin
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