Clinical Development of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccine

Since the infection of enterovirus 71 / EV71 primarily affects countries in the Asia-Pacific region, there is little incentive for vaccine companies from developed countries to develop enterovirus 71 / EV71 vaccines, and mainly the companies and institutes in Asia make efforts to take the vaccines from research to product launch. The ideal candidates for enterovirus 71 / EV71 vaccine should elicit strong cross-genotype neutralizing antibody response and have low costs of the finished products. Candidates based on synthetic peptides, recombinant subunits, virus-like particles, and chemically-inactivated virions are in consideration.

Due to their intrinsically poor immunogenic ability, neutralization epitopes-based enterovirus 71 / EV71 vaccines should be formulated in strong adjuvant such as CFA, which are not approved by FDA right now. Similar situation has been met by recombinant subunit-based enterovirus 71 / EV71 vaccine candidates. For the VLP-based EV71 vaccine candidate, neutralizing antibody responses will be induced only when high dose of them are formulated with alum; there also should be a long time for the construction of recombinant baculovirus VLP-EV71 and the GMP certification of the insect cells; in addition, the high cost of production will be an obstacle for VLP-EV71 vaccine development.

A stable and cost-effective enterovirus 71 / EV71 may be developed based on formalin-inactivated virions that can induce cross-genotype neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primate models. Five inactivated enterovirus 71 / EV71 virion vaccines have been produced in China, Taiwan and Singapore, and have entered into phase 1 or 2 human clinical trials.

Table 2. Formalin-inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccine candidates currently being tested in clinical trials

Table 1. Distribution of EV71 genotypes throughout the world from 1997 to 2010

What is Enterovirus 71 (EV71)? Biological Characteristics of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
Genetic Variations of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Clinical Development of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccine
Potential Drug Targets of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)  
EV71 Virus Protein

Enterovirus VP0 Protein & Antibody

EV71 Strain Source

Strain BrCr

EV71 Infection Receptor

CyPA / PPIA
Vimentin / VIM
FABP1 / L-FABP
FABP2 / I-FABP
hnRNP K / HNRNPK
PSGL-1 / CD162
SCARB2 / LAMP-2

EV71 Information

What is Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
Biological Characteristics of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
Genetic Variations of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
Clinical Development of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
Potential Drug Targets of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)

Virus Research Tools

Influenza Virus
EBOV (Ebola Virus)
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
HCoV (Human Coronavirus)
RSV (Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
HCV (Hepatitis C virus)
HPV (Human Paillomavirus)
HCMV (Human Cytomegalovirus)
EV 71 (Human Enterovirus 71)
SUDV (Sundan Ebolavirus)
DENV (Dengue virus )
HeV (Hendra virus )
LASV (Lassa virus)
MARV (Marburgvirus)
NiV (Nipah virus)
RVFV (Rift Valley fever virus)
WNV (West Nile Virus
PRRSV (Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus)
SFTSV (Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus )