Cancer Biomarker

Cancer Biomarker Related Products Index
aFGF/FGF1 AGR2 Alpha-fetoprotein/AFP
Angiopoietin 1 / ANG1 / ANGPT1 Angiopoietin-2/ANG2 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 1
APC/Adenomatous polyposis coli protein Aurora A/AURKA BCL2/Bcl-2
BDNF/ANON2 beta-Catenin/CTNNB1 bFGF/FGF2
BMI1 c-Abl / ABL1 c-Met/Met/HGFR
C4.4A/LYPD3 Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9 Cathepsin D/CTSD
CCL16 / HCC-4 / NCC4 CCR7 CD109
CD146/MCAM CD147/EMMPRIN/Basigin CD171/L1CAM
CD208/DC-LAMP CD24 CD31/PECAM-1
CD38/ADPRC1 CD44 CD74
CD96/TACTILE CD98/SLC3A2/4F2HC CDC73/HRPT2
CDH13 / Cadherin-13 / H Cadherin CDKN2D/p19ink4d CEACAM5/CEA/CD66e
CEACAM6/CD66c CEACAM7 CEACAM8/CD66b/CD67
CEACAM‑1/CD66a CGA/HCG CHI3L1/YKL40
CXCL17 CXCR4 cyclin D1
DEFA1 DMBT1/Muclin DNMT1
E-Cadherin/CDH1/E-cad/CD324 ECM1 EEBB3/HER3
EGFR/HER1 Endoglin/CD105 ENO2
EpCAM/TROP-1/TACSTD1 Epidermal Growth Factor/EGF Epiregulin/EREG
ErbB4/HER4 FGFR3/CD333 Fibroblast Activation Protein alpha/FAP
Folate Binding Protein/FOLR1 FOLR2 GADD45A/DDIT1
Galectin-3BP/LGALS3BP Glypican 1/GPC1 Glypican 3/GPC3/OCI-5
GPA33 GPNMB/Osteoactivin HE4/WFDC2/WAP5
HER2/ErbB2 HPGD/15-PGDH HSPA5
ICAM-1/CD54 IFNAR1 IFNAR2/IFNABR
IGBF/PRSP IGF-2/IGF-II IGF1/IGF‑I/IGF-1
IGF1R/CD221/IGF-I R IGFBP-2 / IGFBP2 IGFBP1/IGFBP-1
IGFBP3/IGFBP-3 IL1A/IL-1A/IL-1F1 IL1B/IL-1B/IL-1 beta
IL6/IL-6/Interleukin-6 IL6R/IL-6R/CD126 IL6ST/gp130/CD130
ING1 Kallikrein 10/KLK10 Kallikrein 2/KLK2
KIT / c-KIT / CD117 KLK3 KLK5/Kallikrein 5
KLK6/Kallikrein 6/Neurosin KRT18/Cytokeratin18 Leptin
LGALS3 LKB1 LRRN3
M-CSF/CSF-1 MAP2 MAPK3
Matriptase/ST14 MCP-1/CCL2 MIF
MMP-3 MMP2/MMP-2/CLG4A MMP9/MMP-9/CLG4B
MTDH/lyric/metadherin MUC1/Mucin 1/CD227 MYC associated factor X
NEK2 NELL2 NGF/NGFB/beta-NGF
NGL-1/LRRC4C OLFM4/Olfactomedin-4 OPN/Osteopontin
OTUB1 OTUB2 p21/WAF1/CDKN1A
p27/Kip1/CDKN1B p53 p63 / TP63
PAI-1 / SerpinE1 PCNA PDCD4
PDGFRB/CD140b PLAUR/CD87 PON1
PRL/Prolactin PRMT1/HRMT1L2 Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP
PSMA/FOLH1/GCPII PTEN PTH1R/PTHR1
PTK6/Brk RB1/OSRC REG4
RET S100A1 S100A11 / S100C
S100A15/S100A7A S100A16 S100A2
S100A4 S100A6 S100A7
S100A8/MRP-8 S100A9/MRP-14 S100B
S100P SERPINB3 / SCCA-1 SOCS6
SRC/Proto-oncogene c-Src STYK1/NOK Survivin/BIRC5/API4
Syndecan-1/CD138/SDC1 TCL1A TEM7/PLXDC1
TGF-beta 1/TGFB1 TGF-beta 2 TGF-beta 3/TGFB3
TGFA / TGF-alpha TGFBR1 / ALK-5 TGFBR3 / Betaglycan
Tie2/CD202b/TEK TIMP-1/TIMP1 TIMP-2/TIMP2
TIMP-3/TIMP3 TIMP-4/TIMP4 TLE1
TMEFF2 TNF-alpha/TNFA/TNFSF2 TOPBP1
Urokinase/PLAU VCAM1/VCAM-1/CD106 VEGF/VEGFA/VEGF165
VEGFR2/KDR/Flk-1/CD309 VSIG1 XBP1
Cancer Biomarker Background
Cancer Biomarker Information

Cancer biomarkers can be used for prognosis: to predict the natural course of a tumor, indicating whether the outcome for the patient is likely to be good or poor (prognosis). They can also help doctors to decide which patients are likely to respond to a given drug (prediction) and at what dose it might be most effective (pharmacodynamics). Cancer biomarkers are present in tumor tissues or serum and encompass a wide variety of molecules, including DNA, mRNA, transcription factors, cell surface receptors, and secreted proteins. One of these serum biomarkers in wide use is PSA which is produced by normal prostate cells. The higher the PSA is in the serum, the higher the correlation is toward the existence of prostate cancer.

Prognostic biomarkers allow the natural course of a tumor to be predicted, distinguishing 'good outcome' tumors from 'poor outcome' tumors, and they guide the decision of whom to treat (or how aggressively to treat). Predictive biomarkers are used to assess the probability that a patient will benefit from a particular treatment. For example, patients with breast cancer in which the gene encoding the oestrogen receptor is expressed respond to treatment with tamoxifen, whereas when the gene ERBB2 (also known as HER2) is amplified in the tumour, the patients benefit from treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin) instead. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers measure the near-term treatment effects of a drug on the tumor (or on the host) and can, in theory, be used to guide dose selection in the early stages of clinical development of a new anticancer drug.

The application of cancer biomarkers is still controversial. PSA is a widely used cancer biomarker. However, there are reasons other than cancer that can cause rises in PSA, such as infections within the prostate gland, increased exercise with irritation of the affected area, and even vigorous physical examination by a doctor. Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) can be a biomarker of ovarian cancer risk or an indicator of malignancy, but it has low sensitivity and specificity. Levels of this marker can be high in people who have pancreatitis, kidney or liver disease, making its accuracy as a cancer diagnostic tool very limited. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is another biomarker that is elevated in patients with colorectal, breast, lung, or pancreatic cancer. As a screening test, it can be elevated by many other factors than cancer; smoking for instance raises CEA levels.

An ideal tumor marker should be measured easily, reliably and cost-effectively using an assay with high analytical sensitivity and specificity. In addition, an ideal tumor marker should be present in detectable quantities at early or preclinical stages and the quantitative levels of the tumor marker should reflect tumor burden. Recent technological advances, especially in the fields of genomics and proteomics, have made it easier to identify many biomarkers at once in high-throughput screens. The validation of cancer biomarkers - that is, determination of clinical relevance and applicability - is also quite challenging, and many questions have been raised regarding how new tests will be developed, evaluated, and integrated into clinical practice.

Cancer Biomarker References

1. Kulasingam V, et al. (2007) Tissue culture-based breast cancer biomarker discovery platform. Int J Cancer. 123(9):2007-12.
2. Sawyers CL. (2008) The cancer biomarker problem. Nature. 452(7187):548-52.
3. Johansen JS, et al. (2009) Plasma YKL-40: a potential new cancer biomarker? Future Oncol. 5(7):1065-82.
4. Wang P, et al. (2009) The evolving role of mass spectrometry in cancer biomarker discovery. Cancer Biol Ther. 8(12):1083-94.
5. Boffetta P. (2010) Exploring a cancer biomarker: the example of C-reactive protein. J Natl Cancer Inst. 102(3):142-3.

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